Questions:
1. What is exception handling?
2. Why is readability important to writability?
3. How is the cost of compilers for a given language related to design that language?
4. What have been the strongest influences on programming language design over the past 50 years?
5. What is the name of the category of programming languages whose structure is dictated by the von Neumann computer architecture?
6. What two programming language deficiencies were discovered as a result of the research in software development in the 1970s?

Answers:

1. Exception handling is the process of responding to the occurrence, during computation, of exceptions – anomalous or exceptional events requiring special processing – often changing the normal flow of program execution. It is provided by specialized programming language constructs or computer hardware mechanisms and exception handling is the ability of a program to intercept run-time errors and other unusual conditions detectable by the program and take corrective measures then continue which is an obvious aid to reliability.

2. Readability is important to writability because if a programming language is difficult to read and understand then it can be difficult for a programmer to create new code that might need to interact or use other code. Often times code needs to be modified and if a program is difficult to read then it is difficult to add new code to it.

3. The cost of compilers for a given language is related to the design of it because a languange that requires many run-time type checks will prohibit fast code execution, regardless of the quality of the compiler and the cost of compilers for a given language is influenced by that language’s design. A language that needs many run-time type checks will execute slower regardless of the quality of the compiler. The execution efficiency is now considered less important.

4. The strongest influences on programming language design over the past 50 years is Von Neumann architecture

5. The name of the category of programming languages whose structure is dictated by the Von Neumann computer architecture is Imperative Language.

6. Two programming language deficiencies were discovered as a result of the research in software development in the 1970s are incompleteness of type checking and inadequacy of control statements (GOTO statements).