Questions:

16. In what way are Scheme and Common LISP opposites of each other?
17. What dialect of LISP is used for introductory programming courses at some universities?
18. What two professional organizations together designed ALGOL 60?
19. In what version of ALGOL did block structure appear?
20. What missing language element of ALGOL 60 damaged its chances for widespread use?
21. What language was designed to describe the syntax of ALGOL 60?
22. On what language was COBOL based?
23. In what year did the COBOL design process begin?
24. What data structure that appeared in COBOL originated with Plankalkül?

Answers:

16. In its sizes, complexity, adn scoping(scheme: static scoping, Common LISP: both dynamic and static scoping).
17. Scheme
18. The two professional organizations are Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) and GAMM.
19. ALGOL 60
20. The lack of input and output statements with formatting
21. The language was Backus Naur Form (BNF), which was Backus’s new notation for describing syntax of programming languages.
22. FLOW-MATIC
23. The beginning of COBOL similar to ALGOL 60 that was designed by a committee of people meeting for relatively short periods of time and in 1959, the design process of COBOL began and sponsored by the Department of Defense.
24. Hierarchical data structure